Are you interested in learning about a commonly used method in user experience (UX) design that can help you determine the best solution based on actual results and eliminate disputes arising from differing opinions? A/B testing is the method that you need to know about! When used effectively, it can help you achieve diverse design goals.
I. What is A/B Testing
A/B testing, also referred to as split testing or bucket testing, is a technique for comparing two versions of a webpage or application to determine which one performs better.
A/B testing essentially involves an experiment in which we randomly present users with two or more variations of a page, and statistical analysis is used to determine which variation performs better for a specific conversion goal.
With the gradual decline of mobile internet traffic and demographic dividends, more and more product operators are turning to data-driven refined operation methods to achieve user growth in highly competitive markets. A/B testing has emerged as an effective means of refined operations.
II. Purpose of A/B Testing
The purpose of A/B testing is to enable individuals, teams, and companies to make informed changes to their user experience based on user behavior outcome data. By using A/B testing, they can formulate hypotheses and gain a deeper understanding of how modifications to certain elements impact user behavior.
A/B testing can be leveraged on an ongoing basis to consistently enhance the user experience and improve specific goals, such as conversion rate, over time.
III. Process of A/B Testing
The process of A/B testing can be broken down into six steps:
- Determine the target: The target is the metric used to evaluate whether the variant is more effective than the original version. This target could be the click-through rate of a button, the open rate of a link to a product purchase, the sign-up rate of an email signup, and more.
- Create variations: Make desired changes to elements of the original version of your site. Changes could include altering the color of a button, changing the order of elements on the page, hiding navigation elements, or customizing content entirely.
- Generate hypotheses: Once goals are identified, hypotheses can be created and A/B testing ideas generated to statistically analyze whether they will outperform the current version.
- Collect data: Collect corresponding data for A/B testing analysis for assumptions in a specified area.
- Run the trial: At this point, visitors to the website or app will be randomly assigned to either the control or variant. Measure, calculate, and compare their interactions with each experience to determine how well each user experience performed.
- Analyze results: After the experiment is complete, the results can be analyzed. A/B testing analysis will show whether there are statistically significant differences between the two versions.
IV. How to Design A/B Testing
Once we understand the A/B testing process, we can design our own tests to gather effective information. Generally, there are two design ideas: single-factor experimental design and factorial experimental design.
The first design idea is the single-factor experimental design. This design involves only one influencing factor variable, and the other variables remain constant. For instance, we can have two experimental groups, one group uses advertisement picture A, and the other uses advertisement picture B. By comparing the two groups in the experiment, we can determine which advertisement picture is more effective.
The second design idea is factorial experimental design. This design involves multiple influencing factor variables. For example, if we want to test the impact of the advertisement image (AB) and the advertisement pop-up method (AB) on the conversion rate at the same time, we have two variables, and four combinations:
- Ad A, pop-up method A
- Ad A, pop-up method B
- Ad B, pop-up method A
- Ad B, pop-up method B
The advantage of factorial experimental design is that we can test the interaction between variables. If we find in the single-factor AB test that ad A is better than ad B and pop-up method A is better than pop-up method B, but the combination of ad A + pop-up method A is not the best, we need to use factorial experimental design. This is because the combination of ad A and pop-up method A produces a chemical effect.
V. Test Cases
Let's delve into some A/B testing case studies to gain inspiration and insights on how others have achieved their goals through this method.
The first example is Airbnb’s A/B testing to increase housing resource bookings.
Airbnb is a well-known platform providing homestay services, founded in 2007 and currently valued at around 30 billion US dollars. In early 2011, the Airbnb team discovered that the number of housing resource bookings in New York City was unexpectedly low. Despite New York being a popular tourist destination, the housing resource photos in the area were taken with mobile phones, resulting in low quality and unattractive photos. The team hypothesized that professionally taken photos could increase the bookings of housing resources.
To test this theory, the Airbnb team selected some hosts as an experimental group and provided them with free professional photography services. The data revealed that if there were professionally taken residential photos in the housing resource information, the bookings of the housing resource were 2-3 times higher than the average bookings of Airbnb, confirming the team's assumption. As a result, Airbnb launched a photography plan and hired 20 photographers to provide professional photography services for the hosts, leading to a significant increase in housing resource bookings.
The second example is Electronic Arts, aiming to design a better web page to maximize revenue.
EA's popular game—SimCity 5—sold 1.1 million copies in its first two weeks after launch, with 50% of the game's sales coming from online downloads. When EA was preparing to release a new version of SimCity, they offered a promotional message to entice more players to pre-order the game. However, the promotion didn't lead to the expected increase in bookings. EA then conducted A/B testing experiments to see which designs and layouts would generate more revenue.
One experiment involved removing all promotions from the page, resulting in a surprising 43.4% increase in bookings over the original version. The results demonstrated that direct promotions did not necessarily lead to buying behavior, allowing EA to maximize revenue through A/B testing.
The last example is comScore, striving for sustainable development and seeking more business opportunities.
comScore ran an experiment on their product page, showcasing user quotations as a form of social proof. However, the quotations were mixed in with other content and displayed on a gray background that was not easily visible to human eyes.
The team experimented with different versions of the design, eventually creating a vertical layout with the client's logo on top, resulting in a 69% increase in conversions compared to the original.
Although these examples have different goals, they all utilized A/B testing to better understand user psychology, select the most suitable solutions for their operations, and achieve success.
When formulating an A/B testing plan, we should consider our own situation and pay attention to the following points:
- Keep the number of experimental and control groups equal: To ensure the reliability of the experiment, we should keep the experimental and control groups with the same proportion of users. For example, if the experimental group has 5% of users, the control group should also have 5% of users as a control.
- Control experiments during the same time period: User activity may increase temporarily on special days, such as during festivals. If we compare plan A during a festival with plan B during a non-festival, it would be unfair to plan B. Therefore, experiments should be controlled during the same time period.
- Avoid repeating experiments with the same group of users: The randomness of user behavior may cause little variation in the beginning. However, after multiple experiments, the difference in behavior can become very large. Therefore, we should avoid running the experiment with the same group of users repeatedly.
- Exclude outliers: Cheating users and BUG data may cause strange indicators, so it's important to exclude outliers.